Doctrine in Development examines the doctrine of the imputation of Christ’s active obedience with a focus on the thought of Johannes Piscator. Challenging earlier scholarship that regarded the doctrine as clearly present in the Reformers, Heber Campos shows how Piscator’s exegetical and theological arguments generated responses that brought together several other doctrines to support the imputation of Christ’s active obedience in a way that Reformed theologians had not previously done. Viewing Piscator’s objections to the imputation of Christ’s positive righteousness as a turning point in the Reformed understanding of active obedience, Campos highlights the process of doctrinal development regarding Christ’s satisfaction.
Heber Carlos De Campos Jr. is associate professor of historical theology at Centro de Pós Graduação Andrew Jumper, and the director of the Jonathan Edwards Center in Sao Paulo, Brazil
“When writing an essay some years ago on Calvin’s view of the imputation of Christ’s righteousness as the basis for the justification of believers, I first came across Heber de Campos’s dissertation on Johannes Piscator and debates over Christ’s active obedience in the early period of Reformed orthodoxy. De Campos’s study impressed me as a fine example of careful historical study that makes an important contribution to our understanding of the diversity of opinion on the question in this period and the development of the doctrine of the imputation of Christ’s entire obedience (active and passive) in subsequent Reformed theology. It fills a gap in the literature on this topic and provides helpful historical insight into the complex history of post-Reformation debates regarding the basis for God’s justifying verdict. Since these debates remain lively to the present day, de Campos’s study is historically and theologically instructive. I am delighted that the editors of this fine series, Reformed Historical-Theological Studies, have deemed it worthy of publication.”
—Cornelis P. Venema, president and professor of doctrinal studies, Mid-America Reformed Seminary
“Doctrine in Development is a remarkable work of scholarship that treats a most important subject: the imputation of the active obedience of Christ. This volume stands as a testimony to the vitality and depth of Brazilian theological education today, and yet it is also a personal achievement. Dr Campos offers close readings of complex texts, carefully nuanced arguments, directives for future research, and almost painless correctives to those who have erred in narrating aspects of his story—including myself! But Campos offers more than a model for research; he also manages to match the mastery of his material with a commendable modesty in tone. In short, this is the most reliable and accessible guide to the development of this doctrine, and I would not think of writing or speaking on the subject again without this volume in hand.”
—Chad B. Van Dixhoorn, Chancellor’s Professor of Historical Theology, Reformed Theological Seminary